National Family Health Survey (NFHS) Subject Reports


The NFHS Subject Reports reported on findings from India's first and second National Family Health surveys. The surveys were conducted in 1992–93 and 1998–99 under the auspices of the Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare to provide national and state-level estimates of fertility, infant and child mortality, family planning practice, maternal and child health, and the utilization of services available to mothers and children.

The International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), Mumbai, conducted NFHS-1 and NFHS-2 in cooperation with consulting organizations and population research centers throughout India and with the East-West Center in Honolulu, Hawaii, and ORC Macro in Calverton, Maryland. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) supported both surveys, and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) provided additional funding for NFHS-2. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) supported the analysis and the publication of this series.

NFHS Subject Reports may be downloaded from this page.

No. 21. Factors affecting sex-selective abortion in India and 17 Major states by Robert D. Retherford and T.K. Roy. January 2003. 78 pp.

No. 20. Promoting institutional deliveries in rural India: The role of antenatal-care services by K.S. Sugathan, Vinod Mishra, and Robert D. Retherford. December 2001. 38 pp.

No. 19. An evaluation of recent estimates of fertility trends in India by Robert D. Retherford and Vinod Mishra. November 2001. 52 pp.

No. 18. Does community access affect the use of health and family welfare services in India? by N.P. Das, Vinod K. Mishra, and P.K. Saha. May 2001. 79 pp.

No. 17. How much has fertility declined in Uttar Pradesh? by Robert D. Retherford, Vinod K. Mishra, and G. Prakasam. May 2001. 40 pp.

No. 16. Are the WHO guidelines on breastfeeding appropriate for India? by Ravilla Anandaiah and Minja Kim Choe. May 2000. 23 pp.

No. 15. Child immunization in Madhya Pradesh by Rakesh Munshi and Sang-Hyop Lee. February 2000. 20 pp.

No. 14. Child nutrition in India by Vinod K. Mishra, Subrata Lahiri, and Norman Y. Luther. June 1999. 39 pp.

No. 13. Reasons for discontinuing and not intending to use contraception in India by Vinod K. Mishra, Robert D. Retherford, P.S. Nair, and Griffith Feeney. June 1999. 36 pp.

No. 12. Factors affecting source of family planning services in India by P.S. Nair, Griffith Feeney, Vinod K. Mishra, and Robert D. Retherford. June 1999. 38 pp.

No. 11. Infant and child mortality in India by Arvind Pandey, Minja Kim Choe, Norman Y. Luther, Damodar Sahu, and Jagdish Chand. December 1998. 99 pp.

No. 10. Knowledge and use of oral rehydration therapy for childhood diarrhoea in India: Effects of exposure to mass media by K.V. Rao, Vinod K. Mishra, and Robert D. Retherford. November 1998. 55 pp.

No. 9. Fertility in India by M.M. Gandotra, Robert D. Retherford, Arvind Pandey, Norman Y. Luther, and Vinod K. Mishra. May 1998. 70 pp.

No. 8. Mother's employment and infant and child mortality in India by Sunita Kishor and Sulabha Parasuraman. April 1998. 40 pp.

No. 7. Alternative contraceptive methods and fertility decline in India by K.B. Pathak, Griffith Feeney, and Norman Y. Luther. March 1998. 28 pp.

No. 6. Wanted and unwanted fertility in selected states of India by Sumati Kulkarni and Minja Kim Choe. February 1998. 32 pp.

No. 5. Maternal education and utilization of maternal and child health services in India by Pavalavalli Govindasamy and B.M. Ramesh. December 1997. 28 pp.

No. 4. Comparison of fertility estimates from India’s Sample Registration System and National Family Health Survey by R.L. Narasimhan, Robert D. Retherford, Vinod Mishra, Fred Arnold, and T.K. Roy. September 1997. 36 pp.

No. 3. Son preference and its effect on fertility in India by Rangamuthia Mutharayappa, Minja Kim Choe, Fred Arnold, and T.K. Roy. March 1997. 36 pp.

No. 2. Contraceptive use in India, 1992–93 by B. M. Ramesh, S. C. Gulati, and Robert D. Retherford. October 1996.xvi, 108 pp.

No. 1. Unmet need for family planning in Uttar Pradesh by D. Radha Devi, S. R. Rastogi, and Robert D. Retherford. April 1996. 28 pp.