Publications by East-West Center Authors


Publications in 2017-2018


Brewington, Laura (2018). Stakeholder perceptions of invasive species and participatory remote sensing in the Galapagos Islands. In M. Lourdes Torres and C. Mena, eds. Understanding invasive species in the Galapagos Islands: From the molecular to the landscape. Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 175-92.

When agricultural landowners and employees of the Galapagos National Park Service were asked about changes in land cover, their responses were strikingly different. Landowners thought guava had decreased by 19 percent between 2004 and 2010, while park employees reported an increase of 62 percent in the same area.

Brunner, Jessie (2018). Getting to good human trafficking data: Everyday guidelines for frontline practitioners in Southeast Asia. Stanford, California: WS Handa Center for Human Rights and International Justice; Honolulu, Hawaii: East-West Center; West Java, Indonesia: Human Rights Resource Centre.

The guidelines are based on interviews with anti-trafficking practitioners in four Southeast Asian nations, with additional input from international experts on human trafficking and data management. They are intended to serve as a reference document, offering baseline standards and recommendations based on current understanding around good, responsible data practices.

Cho, Dongchul, Takatoshi Ito, and Andrew Mason, eds. (2018). Economic stagnation in Japan: Exploring the causes and remedies of Japanization. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Japan's dramatic transformation from economic success story to prime example of economic stagnation offers important policy lessons to advanced countries everywhere.

Ernst, Dieter, and Michael G. Plummer, eds. (2018). Megaregionalism 2.0: Trade and innovation within global networks. World Scientific.

The US government has withdrawn from the Transpacific Partnership agreement (TPP), suggesting the need to highlight the critical role that international trade and investment play in fostering sustainable growth and prosperity. Equally important are economic policies to ensure that gains and losses from trade for innovation are shared by all.

Ha, Joonkyung, and Sang-Hyop Lee (2018). Population aging and the possibility of a middle-income trap in Asia. ADB Economics Working Paper. Manila: Asian Development Bank.

Low fertility in many economies of East, South, and Southeast Asia could slow down economic growth and lead to a demography-driven middle-income trap.

Harwit, Eric (2018). Is 5G wireless technology the next field for Chinese dominance? China-US Focus, 4 April.

If Chinese companies succeed in designing and deploying key technologies for 5G systems, they may reap a whirlwind of profits from not only the communications arena, but from a multitude of new technologies. If Chinese technologies become global standards, both developed and developing nations will pay royalties to Huawei and associated companies and Chinese corporations could gain unparalleled leverage in areas far beyond their national borders.

National Transfer Accounts (2018). What do we learn when we "Count Women's Work"? NTA Bulletin No.11. Honolulu: East-West Center.

Taking account of unpaid care and housework substantially increases the cost of raising children but also shows that the elderly, who often contribute substantially to care and housework, are not as heavy a burden on their families as sometimes suggested.

Roy, Denny (2018). How America can meet China's challenge. The National Interest. 25 April 2018.

Given the nature and scope of the Chinese challenge, the United States must make strategic adjustments. The first is Taiwan independence. Even small steps by the U.S. government that appear to signal an upgrade in relations with Taipei cause great consternation in Beijing. The second weak spot of the Chinese Communist Party is the exposure of the corruption or incompetence of senior officials.

Saksena, Sumeet, Chinh Cong Tran, and Jefferson Fox (2018). Household cooking fuel use in rural and peri-urban Viet Nam: A multilevel longitudinal analysis of supply side factors, by Energy for Sustainable Development. 44:47–54.

There may be places in Vietnam where the transition from wood to cleaner fuels for household cooking has slowed down due to the government's successful small-holder plantation programs. Other external interventions, such as highway construction and improved access to markets, may facilitate households moving to cleaner fuels.

Woods, Kevin (2018). Rubber out of the ashes: Locating Chinese agribusiness investments in "armed sovereignties" in the Myanmar-Chinese borderlands. Territory, Politics, Governance. Forthcoming special issue: Grounding China’s Global Integration. DOI: 10.1080/21622671.2018.1460276.

The borderland between Myanmar and China has been splintered for decades by fighting among local militias and between these groups and the national military. Over the past 10 years, the government has increased control over the region by allocating large tracts of land to private businesses―often with ties to the military or to favored local groups―ostensibly to grow rubber and other crops. This “land grab” has been financed in part by the Chinese government under the guise of a crop-substitution program to reduce the production of heroin.


Brewington, Laura, Victoria Keener, Melissa Finucane, and P. Eaton (2017). Participatory scenario planning for climate change adaptation using remote sensing and GIS. In S. Walsh, ed. Remote sensing for societal benefits. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp 236-52.

A participatory scenario-planning approach was used with stakeholders on the island of Maui, Hawaii, to create spatially explicit depictions of future island land cover for input into a water budget model.

Corell, Robert W., Jong Deong Kim, Yoon Hyong Kim, and Oran R. Young, eds. (2017). The Arctic in world affairs: A North Pacific dialogue on building capacity for a sustainable Arctic in a changing global order. Busan, Republic of Korea: Korea Maritime Institute; and Honolulu, Hawaii: East-West Center.

This book addresses five major themes relating to the Arctic: the impacts of a changing global order; responsible economic development of the Arctic; sustainable Arctic communities; Arctic challenges and opportunities for global maritime industries; and opportunities for enhancing the dialogue between practitioners and analysts.

Ernst, Dieter (2017). China's standard-essential patents challenge: From latecomer to (almost) equal player? Special Report. Waterloo, ON, Canada: Centre for International Governance Innovation.

Efficient licensing of standard-essential patents (SEPs) is crucial for achieving a rapid and broadbased diffusion of innovation. This report assesses China’s efforts to reduce SEP-related market imperfections in the IT industry.

Feng, Wang (2017). Policy response to low fertility in China: Too little, too late? AsiaPacific Issues No. 130. Honolulu: East-West Center.

At 1.5 children per woman, the fertility rate in China is one of the lowest in the world. China’s birth-control policies are now largely relaxed, but new programs are needed to provide healthcare and support for the growing elderly population and to encourage young people to have children.

Finucane, Melissa L., Nghiem Tuyen, Sumeet Saksena, James H. Spencer, Jefferson M. Fox, Nguyen Lam, Trinh Dinh Thau, Tran Duc Vien, and Nancy Davis Lewis (2017). Perceived risk of avian influenza in poultry and urbanization in northern Vietnam: Results from a household survey. EcoHealth. 14:144-54.

Rapid and extensive community change poses different challenges for poultry management as communes move from rural to peri-urban to urban settings. Analyses of questionnaire responses from 1,081 poultry raisers in northern Vietnam suggests that health-promotion campaigns should specifically address the perceptions and needs of poultry raisers in different settings.

Harwit, Eric (2017). Ford and Tesla's challenge to Trump in China. China-US Focus, 19 July.

Two major American car manufacturers, Ford Motor Company and Tesla, are moving ahead with plans to manufacture cars in China that seem a direct challenge to President Donald Trump’s crusade to keep American manufacturing jobs in the U.S. Surprisingly, the companies seem to have met little resistance from the administration.

Harwit, Eric (2017). Tesla's China venture—will the company set a precedent in Shanghai? China-US Focus, 9 November.

China has kept strict rules on foreign automotive manufacturing investment for decades, with global car companies limited to forming joint ventures with Chinese corporations. But in late October 2017, reports circulated that Tesla had reached an agreement with the Shanghai government to build a wholly owned facility in the municipality’s Free Trade Zone. This projected deal could herald a new age for investors in the world’s largest auto market.

Harwit, Eric (2017). WeChat: Social and political development of China's dominant messaging app. Chinese Journal of Communication. 10(3): 312-27.

This article traces the development of the Chinese social media app WeChat from its origins to its current role as a leading communications tool for some 600 million Chinese citizens. It analyzes the ways the small-group oriented app is changing China’s social connections and assesses methods the Chinese Government employs to monitor and control WeChat communication.

Harwit, Eric (2017). ZTE's penalty: Repercussions of an American-imposed fine. China-US Focus, 24 May.

In March 2017, the Trump administration announced that China’s ZTE Corporation would pay the largest criminal fine in U.S. sanctions history. ZTE agreed to pay $892 million to the U.S. government as the company pled guilty to charges of evading US embargoes on Iran. To secure China’s good will on issues related to North Korea, this may be the last major fine the U.S. imposes on Chinese companies.

Helweg, David A., and Victoria Keener (2107). Applications of downscaling in the main Hawaiian islands: Balancing climate modelers' products and impact modelers' expectations. Report of a workshop help April 11-12, 2017. Honolulu: East-Wesst Center.

By working with groups representing many different viewpoints, this workshop identified methods to represent complicated modelling processes accurately while remaining relevant to a variety of audiences.

Hino, Midori, and David Y.H. Wu (2017). Honolulu Chinatown. In Kazuo Yoshihara et al., eds. Encyclopedia of overseas Chinese and diaspora Chinese. Tokyo: Maruzen Press, pp. 368-69 [in Japanese].

Hurni, Kaspar, Annemarie Schneider, Andreas Heinimann, Duong H. Nong, and Jefferson M. Fox (2017). Mapping the expansion of boom crops in mainland Southeast Asia using dense time stacks of Landsat data. Remote Sensing. 9(4): 320-26.

The use of a dense-time stack of Landsat data to map land-use and land-cover change proved useful for distinguishing subtle changes over time and for mapping a variety of land covers, tree crops, and transformations. While, to date, this approach has only been applied to mapping urban extent and expansion, this study shows that it is also useful for mapping change in rural settings.

Lee, Ronald, and Andrew Mason (2017). Cost of aging. Finance & Development [quarterly publication of the International Monetary Fund]. 54(1). (March).

A graying population means more elderly people who may not support themselves entirely from their own assets or labor income. But it may also bring more capital per worker and rising productivity and wages. Whether population aging is good or bad for the economy will depend, in large part, on how well public policy adjusts to new demographic realities.

Mahy, Mary, Tim Brown, John Stover, Neff Walker, Karen Stanecki, Wilford Kirungi, Txema Garcia-Calleja, and Peter D. Ghys (2017). Producing HIV estimates: From global advocacy to country planning and impact measurement. Global Health Action. 10(suppl. 1).

UNAIDS has led a process to develop the capacity of country teams to produce internationally comparable HIV estimates. Guidance from a reference group and input from country teams have led to critical improvements in the models over time., greatly improving understanding of the HIV epidemic.

Mason, Andrew, Ronald Lee, Michael Abrigo, and Sang-Hyop Lee (2017). Support ratios and demographic dividends: Estimates for the world. Technical Paper No. 2017/1. New York: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.

Changes in population age structure have profound implications for national, regional and global economies. Two broad issues are of particular interest. The first is the demographic dividend—the possibility that, in the developing world, the rise in the share of the working ages and related changes can provide a strong impetus to economic development. The second is the prospect that population ageing and slowing population growth in the developed world will lead to economic stagnation, severe fiscal challenges, and rising inequality.

National Transfer Accounts (2017). Counting women’s work: Measuring the gendered economy in the market and at home. NTA Bulletin No.11. Honolulu: East-West Center.

The Counting Women's Work (CWW) initiative is measuring the full economic contribution of women, including paid work in the marketplace and unpaid care and housework at home.

National Transfer Accounts (2017). Sharing the demographic dividend: Findings from low-and middle-income countries in Asia. NTA Bulletin No. 12. Honolulu: East-West Center.

Recent work by National Transfer Accounts (NTA) teams in Asia sheds light on how both the contributions and benefits associated with population change are shared-—among age groups, between genders, among income groups, and between urban and rural residents. Better insights into these distributional issues can potentially help policymakers maximize the potential of demographic change to stimulate economic growth and reduce the disparities among population groups.

Niu, Xiaoyue, Amy Zhang, Tim Brown, Robert Puckett, Mary Mahy, and Le Bao (2017). Incorporation of hierarchical structure into estimation and projection package fitting with examples of estimating subnational HIV/AIDS dynamics. AIDS. 31(Suppl. 1): 551-59.

Models that provide geographic understanding of the HIV epidemic require detailed data that are often available only for limited areas and years. A new application of recently developed methodology provides more detailed geographic understanding of the HIV epidemic in areas where data are sparse.

Rambo, A. Terry (2017). From poor peasants to entrepreneurial farmers: the transformation of rural life in Northeast Thailand. AsiaPacific Issues No. 132. Honolulu: East-West Center.

Over the past 30 years, a transformation has occurred in the lives of the Isan people of Northeast Thailand. Agricultural advances allowed a shift from subsistence to entrepreneurial farming, and off-farm employment has become more common. The resulting changes have dramatically altered the social fabric, aspirations, and identify of the people of the region.

Roy, Denny (2017). Misunderstanding North Korea. AsiaPacific Issues No. 133. Honolulu: East-West Center.

It is important to dispense with four common misunderstandings about North Korea. First, characterizations of the regime as irrational are wrong. Second, Pyongyang is extremely unlikely to exchange its nuclear weapons for greater trade opportunities with democratic countries. Third, the option of using military action to stop North Korea's missile program is not "on the table." Finally, depending on China to solve the problem is fruitless because the Chinese fear a collapse of the regime more than they fear a nuclear-armed North Korea.

Roy, Denny Roy (2017). Prospects for Taiwan maintaining its autonomy under Chinese pressure. Asian Survey. 57(6): 1135–58.

The widely believed notion that Taiwan will inevitably submit to rule by Beijing is not politically, economically, or strategically well grounded. Despite its economic influence and growing military might, China’s ability to compel involuntary unification is far from certain if Taiwan’s people are determined to maintain their autonomy.

Saksena, Sumeet, Nong Huu Duong, Melissa Finucane, James H. Spencer, Chinh C. Tran, and Jefferson Fox (2017). Does unplanned urbanization pose a disease risk in Asia? The case of avian influenza in Vietnam. AsiaPacific Issues No. 128. Honolulu: East-West Center.

Research into the possible link between unplanned urban expansion and disease outbreaks compared patterns of land-use change in Vietnam with outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI, subtype H5N1). The study found that "peri-urban" areas had a much larger risk of experiencing an H5N1 outbreak than did other parts of the country.

Shirai, Yuko, Jefferson M. Fox, Stephen J. Leisz, Hayao Fukui, and A. Terry Rambo (2017). The influence of local non-farm employment on rural household structure in Northeast Thailand. Journal of Rural Studies. 54: 52-59.

In an area undergoing rapid economic development and modernization, rural household structure appears to be strongly influenced by specific local economic conditions, in this case the availability of non-farm employment. In two villages of northern Thailand, extended and nuclear households were predominant in the village with high local employment rates, while skipped-generation and truncated households were common in the village with limited local employment.

Stover, John, Tim Brown, Robert Puckett, and Wiwat Peerapatanapokin (2017). Updates to the Spectrum/Estimations and Projections Package model for estimating trends and current values for key HIV indicators. AIDS. 31(Suppl. 1): S5-S11.

New methods and data implemented in the 2016 version of the Spectrum software, used by UNAIDS, allow national programs to improve estimates of trends and current values of key HIV indicators in 161 countries.

Tsuya, Noriko O. ( 2017). Low Fertility in Japan—No End in Sight. AsiaPacific Issues No. 131. Honolulu: East-West Center.

After more than 40 years of very low birth rates, Japan now has one of the oldest populations in the world. The Japanese government has introduced and expanded several programs to encourage young Japanese to marry and have children, but so far these programs have had very little impact.

Walsh, S.J., P.H. Page, Laura Brewington, J.R. Bradley, and C.F. Mena (2017). A beach vulnerability framework for the Galapagos Islands: Fusion of WorldView 2 imagery, 3-D laser scanner data, and unmanned aerial vehicles. In S. Walsh, ed. Remote sensing for societal benefits. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp 159-75.

Beaches and their associated environments provide essential ecosystem goods and services, including shoreline protection; nutrient cycling; fisheries resources, habitat, and food; and regulation of nutrients, water, sand particles, and organisms. A beach vulnerability framework was developed to assess the beaches of the Galapagos Islands, based on the fusion of remote-sensing data and measurement methods associated with high-spatial-resolution remote systems for beach assessments of sensitive and fragile settings.

Wu, David Y.H. (2017). The overseas Chinese and diaspora Chinese in Papua New Guinea. In Kazuo Yoshihara et al., eds. Encyclopedia of overseas Chinese and diaspora Chinese. Tokyo: Maruzen Press, pp. 422-23 [in Japanese].

More Publications by East-West Center Authors

* Publications on Environmental Issues